Indira Gandhi Shimla Agreement

      No Comments on Indira Gandhi Shimla Agreement

On 29 August 1972, the two chief negotiators Parmeshwar Narain Haksar (India, Parmeshwar Narain Haksar) and Aziz Ahmed of Pakistan signed the final agreement between India and Pakistan, the summit between Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and Pakistani President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. In the hope of saving an agreement, Bhutto called Gandhi directly. During the climate meeting, Gandhi stressed the main advantage of the Indian proposal in Kashmir – neither side was forced to physically abandon the territory or exchange populations. With “obvious feeling and sincerity,” Bhutto acknowledged that India`s proposal was the only possible one, but that a legally binding commitment would significantly weaken its domestic political position and strengthen the military establishment. He could give nothing but oral assurance that the de facto border in Kashmir, in Bhutto`s words, would gradually acquire the “characteristics of an international border.” On the other hand, India`s concession was concrete and in advance. India abandoned its “package arrangement by agreeing to withdraw troops from the international border before concluding an agreement on Kashmir.” This agreement is ratified by both countries in accordance with their respective constitutional procedures and enters into force from the date of exchange of ratification instruments. [4] The important part of the agreement included Pakistan`s recognition of Bangladesh. Other issues were discussed: the repatriation of refugees to India and the release of Bangladeshi and Pakistani nationals stranded in both countries. Pakistan has agreed to host an unspecified number of bihari Muslims from Bangladesh. Pakistan has also agreed to send back to Bangladesh nearly 150,000 to 200,000 Bengali citizens of the new nation-state of Bangladesh. The agreement is the result of the two countries` determination to “end the conflict and confrontation that have so far weighed on their relations.” He designed the steps to be taken to further normalize mutual relations and also defined the principles that should govern their future relations.

[4] [5] [3] The Delhi Agreement on The Return of War and Civilian Internees is a tripartite agreement between these states, signed on 28 August 1973. The agreement was signed by Kamal Hossain, the Foreign Minister of the Government of Bangladesh, Sardar Swaran Singh, the Indian Minister of Foreign Affairs and Aziz Ahmed, Minister of State for Defence and Foreign Affairs of the Pakistani government. [9] [10] [11] Shimla Agreement: July 2, 1972Shimla: What is it? The Shimla Agreement was signed on 2 July 1972 by Indira Gandhi, then Indian Prime Minister, and by Pakistani President Zulfikar Ali Bhutto, after the 1971 India-Pakistan War that liberated East Pakistan and led to the creation of Bangladesh. Among them, India and Pakistan have decided to abandon the conflict of the past and focus on building lasting friendship, peace and cooperation between them.